Relevance. Bladder cancer is the 3rd among all tumors by the number of genetic mutations. Implemention of new techniques in routine clinical practice give us an opportunity to identify genetic changes, open up the prospects for effective treatment depending of the tumor type.

Aim. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of the mechanism of bladder cancer and the possibility of its implementation in clinical practice.

Description of the object of study. The article provides an overview of the statistics, pathogenesis of the development and treatment of bladder cancer.

Findings. Bladder cancer is a tumor with a large number of gene mutations. Modern technologies have allowed to establish and structure genetic events arising in the development of bladder cancer. These point gene alterations can serve as potential targets for assessing the prognosis of the course of the disease, as well as the selection of targeted antitumor therapy. Determination of the mutational load and genetic sequencing are methods as close as possible to the understanding of practical specialists.