Prospects for the use of small interfering RNAs as inhibitors of immune checkpoints for immunotherapy in oncology
Authors: A.A. Bogdanov, V.V. Vysochinskaya, A.A. Kornev, A.K. Emelyanov, An.A. Bogdanov, V.M. Moiseyenko
Immune therapy is one of the most promising areas of cancer treatment. It is aimed at a cascade of processes responsible
for the antitumor immune response. The involved regulatory mechanisms become targets for various therapeutic approaches
aimed at restoring the impaired functions of immune cells that eliminate cancer cells. The ability of malignant cells to
affect receptors of immune checkpoints is one of the most important mechanisms for suppressing antitumor immunity.
The development of immune check-point inhibitors (ICIs) based on monoclonal antibodies, as well as the methods of
adoptive cell therapy (ACT), are a breakthrough in the immunotherapy of malignant diseases, but it carries a number of
limitations such as insufficient efficiency, safety and cost-effectiveness. The use of RNA interference technologies opens
up prospects for the development of fundamentally new class of ICIs and, as a consequence, the development of more
efficient ACT methods. This review presents the main problems and prospects of the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA)
as the ICIs are highlighted in order to optimize modern AKT approaches.