№70. The most important achievements in oncology in 2016
- E.N. ImyanitovDOI 10.31917/1801085
This review summarizes the most interesting findings for basic science in oncology made within the year 2016. New mechanisms of metastatic spread are discussed. There are unexpected data regarding contribution of gene translocations in cancer pathogenesis. Progress in the studies of BRCA1/2-related cancers is presented. Novel findings in immunooncology are reviewed.
Keywords: oncology, mechanisms of metastatic spread, interesting findings for basic science in oncology, BRCA1/2-related cancers
- F.V. Moiseenko, V.M. MoiseyenkoDOI 10.31917/1801093
This article discusses the Cancer Moonshot program launched in 2016 by the government of US. The main purpose of this program is to «…end cancer as we know it…». In order to achieve this aim 150 outstanding scientists and oncologists formulated 7 main recommended fields of research, breakthrough in which should change cancer paradigm. Among them network for direct patient engagement into clinical trials and high-throughput molecular research, cancer immunotherapy translational science research, drug therapy resistance mechanisms elucidation, symptom management and others. Here we try to show the details of each recommendation.
Keywords: cancer, solid tumors treatment, innovations, perspective research
- D.E. Matskо, M.V. Matsko, E.N. ImyanitovDOI 10.31917/1801103
We present our own translation of a new (2016) WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system
with consideration of its basic features and new disease entities, information about the degree of malignancy of the
most common tumors of this localization, some personal data in the light of the new classification and the latest
developments in the field of neurooncology not included the classification.
Keywords: classification of CNS tumors, the degree of malignancy of the central nervous system tumors, molecular genetics, mutations in the gene IDH1/2, the co-deletion 1p19q, neurooncology
- V.A. ChubenkoDOI 10.31917/1801115
Over the last year, there has been a wave of new successes with immunotherapy. Cancer therapies are becoming increasingly precise, thereby enabling a more personalized approach to treatment selection. To address the challenge of medical resistance, researchers have been developing more potent target, next-generation drugs. New chemotherapeutic options are appearedin clinical practice. It is result in changing of the treatment guidelines and significantincreasing of the overall survival.
Keywords: immunotherapy, target therapy, overall survival, treatment guidelines
- N.V. Dengina, T.V. Mitin, A.O. LikhachevaDOI 10.31917/1801125
This article focuses on the approaches to the adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer patients in accordance with
the neoadjuvant chemotherapy response and also highlights the results of major studies on prostate cancer published in 2016, which are able to change the traditional approach to the radiotherapy administration in these categories of patients. Particular attention is given to the increasing relevance of irradiation combined with targeted agents for the treatment of patients with various tumors, as well as to the opportunities of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and bile tract tumors, traditionally considered radioresistant
Keywords: radiotherapy, breast cancer, prostate cancer, targeted therapy, abscopal effect, hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma
- D.B. KormanDOI 10.31917/1801139
Drug repurposing (repositioning) is the process of developing new indications for existing drugs. The aim of repurposing drugs in oncology is applying existing,
well-characterized and well-used non-cancer drugs as agents in anticancer treatment. The present review summarized recent information about the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of anti-cancer action for several drugs, commonly used for other medical indications (nitroglycerin, diclofenac, metformin, cimetidine, mebendazole).
Keywords: drug repurposing, oncology, nitroglycerin, diclofenac, metformin, cimetidine, mebendazole