In connection with the introduction of modern targeted and immuno-oncological antitumor drugs into wide clinical practice, the question remains of increasing the effectiveness of treating metastatic forms of cancer using a combination of these drugs with surgical removal of the primary tumor and metastatic lesions. Our article reviewed the key trials on this problem in the main metastatic tumors of the genitourinary system.

Cytoreductive operations have been well studied in renal cell carcinoma. According to the results of many trials, the benefit in survival is shown when removing the primary tumor and metastatic lesions, however, the patient’s selection for this type of intervention in combination with systemic treatment is influenced by the prognosis, which depends on various risk factors.

The question of cytoreductive operations in urothelial carcinoma is significantly less studied. However, the available trials have demonstrated a positive role on the oncological results of the removal of primary and metastatic tumors.

Also several retrospective studies confirm the benefit from cytoreductive prostatectomy and the removal of metastases in oligometastatic prostate cancer.