№65. The most important achievements in oncology in 2015
- E.N. Imyanitov
In this paper were analyzed the results of the most interesting studies published in the medical community in 2015, and dedicated to issues of fundamental oncology. Was considered the progress of anticancer immunotherapy, in particular the role of Bifidobacterium, colony-stimulating factors and microsatellite instability of certain tumors for the formation of anti-tumor immune response. Were discussed modern possibilities of early diagnosis of acquired resistance of tumors to targeted therapy using analysis of tumor DNA, circulating in the blood. Also were discussed new experimental data concerning the assessment of tumors drug susceptibility in situ by topical injection of anticancer drugs into the tumor tissue. Were analyzed the results of modern research concerning the effectiveness of hormone therapy of tumors, as well as new data on the antitumor effect of vitamin C against KRAS-mutated cancers and other relevant topics of fundamental oncology.
Keywords: сancer immunotherapy, fundamental oncology, microsatellite instability, acquired cancer resistance, circulating tumor DNA, cancer hormonotherapy, KRAS mutation
- Francisco Gutierrez-Delgado
Cancer is a major public health problem because of its high incidence, the highest mortality, among other non-communicable diseases in the world and the burden costs. Globocan 2012 reported 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million cancer deaths worldwide. 57% (8 million) of new cancer cases, 65% (5.3 million) of the cancer deaths and 48% occurred in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, early cancer detection is critical for improving patient outcome, cost effectiveness of treatment, and decrease mortality rate. However, the benefit of early detection of cancer on patient survival is still controversial because the limitation in both sensitivity and specificity of the current screening tests. Thus, patients with few cancer types have been benefited from screening tests. The role of cancer screening has been established in breast, cervical and colon cancer, but in prostate cancer, overdiagnosis is a concern. The role of novel biomarkers and imaging screening in the early diagnosis of cancer are a subject of intensive research and a matter of debate. This article highlights the current status and the main advances in cancer screening.
Keywords: early cancer detection, cancer screening, breast cancer, mammography, breast thermography, cancer imaging, cancer biomarkers, lung cancer
- F.V. Moiseenko
The year 2015 was marked with the outstanding advances in clinical evaluation of scientific discoveries made during previous period. During this year new data on significant clinical activity of check-point inhibitors in various tumors was obtained. These drugs were shown to be effective in NSCLC, breast cancer, melanoma and MSI associated malignancies. New significant advances were made in the development of consecutive generations of TKI’s for activating mutations addicted tumors. Furthermore, new design of clinical trials facilitating the research of clinical efficacy of new targeted drugs in cancers associated with rare activating mutations emerged. The current review is aimed to describe these advances.
Keywords: immunotherapy, program cell death protein inhibitors, targeted therapy, cancer drug therapy
- М.V. Burmistrov, А.А. Moroshek
In recent years, innovations in surgical oncology are essentially associated with development and adoption of novel multimodality treatment schemes. However in this review we made an attempt to pay attention at several articles published in 2015 and devoted to the new in surgical component of malignancies treatment. 2015 had not become the Year of revolutionary breakthrough in Surgical Treatment of malignancies. All innovations took the form of a gradual improvements in existing technics remaining in the bound of current paradigm which involves attempt to increase safety and functional effectiveness of surgical interventions while keeping radicalism at satisfactory level.
Keywords: surgical oncology, surgical treatment of malignancies, new surgical technics
The lecture is devoted to the discussion of possibilities of neuroimaging methods in the evaluation of radical surgery and monitoring of chemo-radiotherapy in cerebral gliomas. Biomarkers of the effectiveness of the combined therapy and the possible complications (radiation necrosis, continued growth, pseudoresponce, pseudoprogression) are discussed as well as the differential diagnosis.
Keywords: MRI, PET, CT, glioma, chemo-radiation therapy, perfusion, spectroscopy
- G.M. Zharinov, N.Ju. Neklasova
A brief history of external beam radiotherapy. Review of current methods – conformal, stereotactic, hadron irradiation. An analysis of the cost of modern methods of distance irradiation, a comparison of treatment costs and long-term survival of cancer patients. The growth rate of malignant tumors is the result of proliferation and cell loss. It is shown that the change of the cell loss factor by 3–5% fundamentally changing the natural history of the disease and its outcome. Formulates the concept of balance-therapy – maintaining the balance between proliferation and cell loss by conservative undamaged methods. The results of the application of various methods of balance-therapy are presented.
Keywords: external radiotherapy, balance-therapy